Giant Cuttlefish

The annual migration of the Australian Giant Cuttlefish ‘Sepia apama’ is one of the most spectacular natural events in the Australian marine environment.

This natural wonder attracts international film crews, renowned underwater photographers, divers, researchers and journalists to dive and snorkel to experience the aggregation from May to August which is unique in the world to Whyalla.

Cuttlefish in clear sunfiltered water off Stony Point, Whyalla SA

Giant Cuttlefish and many species of fish and sea creatures abound in the unique marine habitat off the coast of Whyalla
Photo Credit: Chris Fewster

These ‘chameleons of the sea’ are one of the largest species of cuttlefish found, reaching up to 60cm in length and weighing up to 5kg.

The migration by these majestic creatures to these waters is for the sole purpose of spawning. Every year between May and August, they come in their tens of thousands to mate and reproduce, in the process creating an amazing spectacle of cunning games, predation, underwater light shows and colourful kaleidoscopic displays.

Cuttlefish are intelligent creatures able to change their colour, shape and texture as they move along the seabed to imitate rocks, sand or seaweed. As males are vastly outnumbered (a gender imbalance unique to Whyalla), there is fierce and frenzied competition between males for mating privileges, leading to displays of unusual and spectacular behaviour.

Mating takes place with the cuttlefish linking their eight arms and two tentacles for head-to-head contact, with the males slipping their sperm packages into the female’s mouth and fertilising her eggs. The female lays tear-shaped eggs and attaches them to the underside of the rocky ledges and in rock cavities where they hatch three to five months later. It is believed they congregate here in such large numbers as it is the only area in the vicinity with rocky ledges suitable to lay eggs.

Commercial fishing almost destroyed this world class phenomenon, therefore the cuttlefish are protected all year round (see below)


The targeting and taking of all cephalopod species (squid, cuttlefish and octopus) is prohibited at all times in the cephalopod exclusion zone in waters of False Bay, Spencer Gulf, near Whyalla.

The targeting and take of all cuttlefish species, including Giant Australian Cuttlefish, is prohibited at all times in the Upper Spencer Gulf in the waters north of the line between Arno Bay and Wallaroo.

For more information please visit the SA Department of Primary Industry and Regions page here


DIVING & SNORKELING with the Cuttlefish

Contact the Whyalla Visitor Centre 1800 088 589, for all the information you will need to see the cuttlefish. Bring your wetsuit and dive gear or hire your equipment and join a the team throughhout the season to experience these amazing creatures. 

Snorkel with a buddy, or in a small guided tour group, for a truely unique and remarkable experience you will never forget.  

Guided tours and equipment hire are offered by Whyalla Diving Services and Experiencing Marine Sanctuaries.


Did you know?

  • Cuttlefish are colour blind. They have ‘w’ shaped pupils which are thought to allow them to see both behind and in front at the same time.
  • Cuttlefish are not actually a fish. They are a cephalopod (Greek for ‘head-foot’), and their feet, or tentacles actually connect to their head rather than their body.
  • Cuttlefish have blue blood, 3 hearts, 8 arms and 2 feeding tentacles.


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Whyalla Visitor Centre, Lincoln Highway
Open: 7 days Mon–Fri 9am–4pm. 
Weekends and public holidays 10am–4pm. 
Closed: Good Friday and Christmas Day 
Phone: (08) 8645 7900 Email:

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